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NPR新聞[翻譯]:特朗普下令從阿富汗撤軍7000人 約為駐軍數一半

發表時間:2018-12-28內容來源:VOA英語學習網

All right. Let's move from shutdown to the drawdown of troops in Afghanistan. Yesterday, President Trump ordered a massive reduction of U.S. troops now deployed in that country. The drawdown in Afghanistan had quickly followed two big pieces of news this week, Trump's decision to also withdraw from Syria and the resignation of Defense Secretary Jim Mattis. So what does all of this mean for military operations going forward? Well, NPR Pentagon correspondent Tom Bowman is here to tell us. Hey, Tom.

TOM BOWMAN, BYLINE: Hey, Ailsa.

CHANG: All right. So right now, there are about 14,000 troops in Afghanistan. What is their specific mission?

BOWMAN: Well, the mission for the past four years has been twofold. Number one, go out with Afghan commandos to hunt down terrorists, al-Qaeda and ISIS, so they don't once again gain a foothold in Afghanistan. The second mission is to train Afghan forces. That's been going on for some time, costing tens of billions of dollars.

And the incoming commander in the region who will oversee the Afghanistan mission told a Senate committee this month that the Afghan forces need a lot more work. Here's Lieutenant General Frank McKenzie.

[SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING]

LT GEN FRANK MCKENZIE: They're not there yet. And if we left precipitously right now, I do not believe they would be able to successfully defend their country. I think that one of the things that would actually provide the most damaging to them would be if we put a timeline on it.

BOWMAN: So the general says, you leave quickly, Afghan army might collapse, fall to the Taliban. That's the concern of the U.S. military. And some analysts are saying that if you only have 7,000 troops left, you won't be able to both train Afghan forces and mount that anti-terror effort.

CHANG: Wait, so meaning with this troop reduction, generals on the ground may have to decide between Afghan training and counterterrorism?

BOWMAN: That's right. Maybe you would have to choose. And some say that even at the current level of 15,000, it's hard to do both. Senior people I've spoke with in the Pentagon say you have to maintain that number, 15,000. But of course, here's the thing. As we all know, the U.S. is entering its 18th year in Afghanistan.

CHANG: Yeah.

BOWMAN: The president and others — some on Capitol Hill, some analysts — are rightly asking, how long will this take? The military says the fight's still at a stalemate after all these years and this effort. So there's some 2,500 Americans dead, 20,000 wounded, nearly a trillion dollars spent. And here's the other thing. There have not been really any serious hearings on the Hill over the years.

CHANG: Now, Trump has stated he does not want the U.S. to serve as the world's policeman. And General Mattis said in his resignation letter that he agrees with the president on that point. So if they agree, how would you explain their very different views on how to proceed in Afghanistan?

BOWMAN: Well, it gets back to that precipitous withdrawal, which is what the Trump decision looks like, versus measured withdrawal, which is what the military and many in Congress would like to see. You battle the Taliban while you negotiate with the insurgent group.

CHANG: Well, that raises another question, the U.S. special envoy to Afghanistan Zalmay Khalilzad is in the region for peace talks with the Taliban. Is it possible this large U.S. troop reduction is part of these negotiations?

BOWMAN: You know, we don't know if this is a calculated effort to get a deal with the Taliban or more of President Trump fulfilling a campaign pledge to bring U.S. troops home. People are asking these questions in the Pentagon, Capitol Hill and elsewhere in Washington. But here's the thing. All we have right now is a number — a 7,000 troop cut and no real explanation at this point.

CHANG: OK. Real quickly, do you think it's possible Trump would remove all U.S. troops before negotiations are even complete, or would he likely wait?

BOWMAN: It's possible he could pull all U.S. troops out and declare victory, just like he did in Syria this week.

CHANG: That's NPR Pentagon correspondent Tom Bowman. Thanks, Tom.

BOWMAN: You're welcome.

參考譯文:

好。現在我們將目光從政府關門轉向縮減駐阿富汗美軍數量。昨天,特朗普總統下令大幅縮減目前駐守在阿富汗的美軍人數。在縮減駐阿美軍之前,本周還有兩個重大消息,分別是特朗普決定從敘利亞撤軍以及美國國防部長吉姆·馬蒂斯辭職。這一切對未來的軍事行動來說意味著什么?NPR駐五角大樓記者湯姆·鮑曼將告訴我們答案。你好,湯姆。

湯姆·鮑曼連線:你好,艾爾薩。

張:好。目前有約1.4萬名美軍駐守在阿富汗。他們的具體任務是什么?

鮑曼:過去四年,他們的任務主要分為兩部分。其一,與阿富汗突擊隊共同追剿恐怖分子、“基地”組織和ISIS,以確保這些恐怖分子不會再次在阿富汗獲得立足之地。他們的第二個任務是訓練阿富汗部隊。這項任務已經進行了一段時間,花費了數百億美元。

該地區即將就任的指揮官負責監督阿富汗行動,他本月對參議院一個委員會表示,阿富汗部隊還有很多工作要做。以下是陸軍中將弗蘭克·麥肯基所說。

(錄音檔案)

陸軍中將弗蘭克·麥肯基:他們還有很多不足。如果我們現在突然撤軍,我認為他們不能成功地保衛自已的國家。如果我們制定時間表,那這將是其中一件對他們來說最具危害性的事情。

鮑曼:將軍的意思是,如果迅速撤軍,那阿富汗軍隊可能會崩潰,無法抵抗塔利班。這是美國軍隊所擔心的事情。一些分析人士表示,如果只留下7000名美軍駐守阿富汗,那不能完成既要訓練阿富汗部隊又要展開反恐行動這兩項任務。

張:等一下,也就是說縮減駐阿美軍之后,該地區的將軍將決定是繼續訓練阿富汗部隊還是開展反恐行動?

鮑曼:沒錯。可能必須要做出選擇。一些人認為,即使保持目前約1.5萬名駐軍的規模,也很難同時兼顧這兩項任務。我采訪了五角大樓的一些高級別官員,他們認為駐阿美軍的規模必須維持在1.5萬人。當然,還有一個問題。我們都知道,美國打響阿富汗戰爭已進入第十八個年頭。

張:對。

鮑曼:總統和其他人,包括一些國會議員和分析人士有理由詢問這個問題:還要持續多長時間?軍方表示,經過這些年的努力之后,這場戰斗目前仍處于僵局之中。目前已有約2500名美軍犧牲,2萬人受傷,資金花費近1萬億美元。還有一件事。多年來,國會山并未舉行過任何嚴肅的聽證會。

張:現在特朗普稱他不希望美國擔當世界警察這個角色。而馬蒂斯將軍在辭職信中寫道,在這個問題上他與總統意見一致。如果他們看法一致,那為什么二人在阿富汗行動上存在如此嚴重的分歧?

鮑曼:這要說回突然撤軍這一決定,特朗普的決定看起來并不是緩慢而謹慎地從阿富汗撤軍,但緩慢而謹慎地撤軍是軍方和眾多國會議員希望看到的情況。一邊對抗塔利班,一邊同這個反叛組織協商。

張:這引出了另一個問題,美國駐阿富汗特使扎勒米·哈利勒扎德正在該地區與塔利班進行和談。那大規模縮減駐阿美軍數量會不會是協商所達成的部分內容?

鮑曼:我們不知道這是為與塔利班達成協議而計劃的行動還是特朗普在兌現將美軍帶回家的競選承諾。五角大樓、國會山以及華盛頓其他機構都在問這些問題。但是還有一個問題。現在我們在討論的縮減7000名駐阿美軍這一數字,實際上并沒有解釋。

張:好。還有個小問題,你認為特朗普會在協商沒有完成前就撤出所有美軍嗎?還是他會等待?

鮑曼:他可能會撤出所有美軍并宣布獲勝,就像他上周處理敘利亞問題時一樣。

張:以上是NPR新聞駐五角大樓記者湯姆·鮑曼帶來的報道。謝謝你,湯姆。

鮑曼:不客氣。

來自:VOA英語網 文章地址: http://www.ablur.com.cn/18/12/NPR28101156va.html

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