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NPR新聞[翻譯]:日本退出國際捕鯨委員會 明年7月重啟商業捕鯨

發表時間:2019-01-02內容來源:VOA英語學習網

Japan says it is going to resume commercial whaling operations next year. This is a practice that has drawn widespread criticism from conservationists. Japan will also pull out of an intergovernmental body that regulates the industry. NPR's Anthony Kuhn joins me from Tokyo to talk about why this is happening and why now. Anthony, good morning.

ANTHONY KUHN, BYLINE: Good morning, David.

GREENE: So what is the Japanese government saying here to explain this?

KUHN: What Japan's chief spokesman said today was that this organization that it pulled out of, the International Whaling Commission, which is based in Cambridge, England, has a sort of double task. Part of it is to protect whales, but the other part is to protect and promote a sustainable whaling industry. And Japan claims it's no longer doing that. It's completely siding with the conservationists, and therefore there is just no place — there's nothing the pro-whaling countries can do.

Now, Japan says it's going to remain an observer in the IWC. It's going to consider the IWC's guidelines on how many whales to catch, although it won't say exactly how many, and in general just stick to whaling practices. Also, it says it's not going to go very far afield anymore. It's going to restrict all its whaling to its own territorial waters and exclusive economic zone. So basically, its coastal waters.

GREENE: But whatever the Japanese government thinks about the Whaling Commission and its mandate, I mean, isn't there an international moratorium on whaling that is still in effect right now? What does that mean for Japan if they start doing this again?

KUHN: Yeah. It's still in effect. It went into effect in the mid-1980s. And after that, Japan just kept on whaling and selling whale meat. But what it said it was doing was scientific research. Basically, that was panned and dismissed by a lot of conservationists as a real fig leaf. You know, it was basically a hoax.

But Japan argues that, thanks to this moratorium, whale stocks have now recovered to the point where they can continue. And, you know, they lobbied the IWC for many years to allow more whaling, but it just doesn't work. And now that they're no longer a signatory to the IWC, they're not allowed to go to the Antarctic or to the Northwest Pacific. They have to fish in their own waters.

GREENE: I mean, this announcement was just hours ago, but it sounds like there's already been a lot of reaction from around the world.

KUHN: There's no doubt that whaling is a part of Japan's maritime culture, but it's not really much of a part of its diet anymore. According to government statistics, Japan consumed about 200,000 tons of it back in the 1960s before Japan's economy really took off. In recent years, that's down to about 5,000 tons a year. And in per capita terms, that's really an insignificant amount. But you could say it's also part of this sort of prickly, assertive nationalism under the Shinzo Abe administration. And this is sort of a way of telling foreigners, no one's going to tell us what to eat and what not to eat.

GREENE: And that was NPR's Anthony Kuhn talking to us about a decision by the Japanese government today to resume commercial whaling operations next year. This is a practice that, of course, has drawn a lot of criticism and a lot of countries already reacting this morning. We'll be following this story again, Japan picking up whaling operations again next year.

參考譯文:

日本宣布將于明年重啟商業捕鯨。此舉引發了自然環境保護主義者的廣泛批評。日本還將退出監管捕鯨業的政府間組織。NPR新聞的安東尼·庫恩將從東京和我們連線,介紹日本現在做出這一決定的原因。安東尼,早上好。

安東尼·庫恩連線:早上好,大衛。

格林:日本政府對此作何解釋?

庫恩:日本政府首席發言人今天宣布,日本退出國際捕鯨委員會,該組織總部位于英國劍橋,肩負雙重任務。其一,該組織要保護鯨魚,其二,要保護并推廣可持續的捕鯨業。日本稱該組織不再推廣捕鯨業。而是完全支持自然環境保護主義者,導致支持捕鯨的國家沒有立足之地且無事可做。

日本表示將以觀察國的身份參與國際捕鯨委員會的相關事務。日本將考慮國際捕鯨委員會的準則,以決定捕鯨數量,不過日本并沒有明確說明將捕多少鯨魚,只是籠統地說會遵守捕鯨慣例。另外,日本還表示不再去遙遠的水域捕鯨。該國會將捕鯨范圍限定在本國領海和排他性經濟海域。也就是限定在日本的沿海水域。

格林:但是,無論日本政府對國際捕鯨委員會及其任務有何看法,全球捕鯨禁令現在仍然有效,對吧?如果日本重啟捕鯨,那這對他們來說意味著什么?

庫恩:對,這一禁令仍在實行。該禁令于上世紀80年代中期開始生效。那之后,日本仍在繼續捕鯨并出售鯨魚肉。但是日本稱捕鯨是為了進行科學研究。這種說法遭到了多位自然環保主義者的嚴厲批評和駁斥,他們稱那是真正的遮丑布。可以說,就是一場騙局。

而日本則辯稱,得益于禁令,現在鯨魚資源已經恢復,可以重啟捕鯨。多年以來,日本一直在游說國際捕鯨委員會,希望委員會允許增加捕鯨數量,但是并沒有奏效。現在,日本已經不再是國際捕鯨委員會的簽約國了,他們不能去大西洋或西北太平洋捕鯨。他們只能在本國水域捕鯨。

格林:這一決定在幾個小時以前宣布,但是聽起來已經引發了國際社會的諸多反應。

庫恩:毫無疑問,捕鯨是日本的海洋文化,但鯨魚肉已經不再是日本的主要飲食了。政府數據顯示,上世紀60年代,也就是日本經濟開始騰飛之前,日本鯨魚肉消費量約為20萬噸。而近幾年,鯨魚肉消費量下降到了每年約5000噸。按人均計算,這的確是微不足道的數量。但是,也可以說這是安倍晉三政府領導下的挑剔且自信的民族主義的表現。這也是在告訴外國人,沒有人能告訴我們應該吃什么、不應該吃什么。

格林:以上是NPR新聞的安東尼·庫恩帶來的報道,他介紹了日本政府今天宣布將于明年重啟商業捕鯨行為的決定。當然,這一做法招致了許多批評,而且今天早上已經有多個國家對此作出了回應。我們將繼續追蹤這一事件,我們要再說一遍,日本將于明年恢復捕鯨行為。

來自:VOA英語網 文章地址: http://www.ablur.com.cn/19/01/NPR02075100fy.html

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