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NPR新聞[翻譯]:普通感冒還是流感 專家教你來區分

發表時間:2019-01-09內容來源:VOA英語學習網

STEVE INSKEEP, HOST: It's that time of year. You wake up with a sore throat, stuffy nose, fever. Maybe you lose your voice - happened to me just last week. And you wonder, is this the flu or just a cold? You can actually find out. NPR's Patti Neighmond reports.

PATTI NEIGHMOND, BYLINE: The symptoms can be similar, but the difference is how quickly they develop and how bad they are. Dr. Yul Ejnes with the American College of Physicians...

YUL EJNES: The flu usually starts abruptly. You could pretty much tell the doctor when it started. You know, I was fine, and then I wasn't.

NEIGHMOND: A cold, on the other hand, takes a couple of days to build up - a sore throat one day, runny nose the next, eventually, maybe a low-grade fever. But symptoms are relatively minor compared to the high fever over a hundred and one or more, body aches and chills of the flu.

EJNES: Feeling like a truck ran you over or you can't even move a muscle.

NEIGHMOND: Coughing and headaches are also a lot more intense with the flu. If you have these symptoms, Ejnes says it's a good idea to check in with your doctor. Over the phone should be fine if you're an otherwise healthy adult. There's no cure for the flu, but your doctor may prescribe an antiviral medication to help fight it. Dr. Matt Zahn is spokesperson for the Infectious Disease Society of America.

MATT ZAHN: In general, you can get better maybe about one day earlier than you regularly would.

NEIGHMOND: And symptoms may be more mild, which is especially important for people at high risk of complications from the flu. This includes children under 5, whose immune systems are still developing, adults 65 and older, whose immune systems are waning, and people with underlying medical conditions like asthma or lung or heart disease.

ZAHN: It makes you less likely to end up in the hospital. It can make you less likely to be severely ill from that influenza infection.

NEIGHMOND: Of course, the best protection, says Zahn, is the flu vaccine, which significantly decreases complications from flu along with hospitalization and even death. As for a cold, it's a different story. Internist Ejnes...

EJNES: The reality is that there's nothing available that affects the virus, that shortens the duration of the head cold.

NEIGHMOND: The best you can do, he says - over-the-counter remedies that can make you feel a little better - decongestants to relieve cough, nasal sprays to reduce stuffiness, lozenges to help a sore throat.

EJNES: Hot, steamy fluids - you know, bringing in the ever-popular chicken soup also can help you feel better. But basically, you're doing whatever you can do to bare it until it runs its course.

NEIGHMOND: Some colds linger for a few weeks, but most clear up within a week. Patti Neighmond, NPR News.

參考譯文:

主持人史蒂夫·英斯基普:現在又到了人們容易感冒的時節。可能你醒來會發現自己嗓子痛,鼻塞,發燒。還可能因感冒失聲。上周我就感冒了。你也許會好奇,這是流感呢,還是普通感冒呢?實際上你可以判斷出來。請看NPR記者帕蒂·內摩德報道。

連線記者帕蒂·內摩德:兩者癥狀可能類似,但是區別在于癥狀的發展有多快,有多嚴重。讓我們聽聽尤爾·埃杰斯醫生和美國醫師協會的醫生是怎么說的...

尤爾·埃杰斯:流感通常是突然患上的,你可以可以說出流感是什么時間開始的,在那個時間之前我還沒事,但是后來就不舒服了。

內摩德:另一方面,普通感冒則是需要幾天的時間來形成——第一天嗓子痛,第二天流鼻涕,最終可能會出現低燒。但與帶來高燒超過101度(攝氏大概38.3度)或更高、身體疼痛和寒戰的流感相比,普通感冒的癥狀相對輕微。

埃杰斯:感覺像是被卡車碾過,或者你甚至連肌肉都動不了。 流感引發的咳嗽和頭痛也是更加嚴重的。如果你有這些癥狀,埃杰斯認為你最好去看醫生。如果你是一個健康的成年人,打電話也可以。目前還沒有治愈流感的方法,但是你的醫生可能會給你開抗病毒藥物來幫助你對抗流感。馬特·扎恩博士是美國感染病協會的發言人。

內摩德:

馬特·扎恩:一般來說,用藥后你可以比不用藥提前一天變得更好。

內摩德:而且癥狀可能更輕微,這一點對流感并發癥高危人群尤為重要。高危人群包括免疫系統仍在發育的5歲以下兒童、免疫系統在衰退的65歲及以上的成年人,還包括患有喘、肺病或心臟病等疾病的人。

扎恩:用藥后需要住院的可能性會很低,而且因為流感感染而重病的可能性也會很低。

內摩德:扎恩說,當然,最好的保護措施是流感疫苗,它能顯著減少流感并發癥以及住院甚至死亡。至于普通感冒情況就不同了,內科醫生埃杰斯...

埃杰斯:現實情況是,沒有任何東西可以影響這種病毒,縮短感冒的持續時間。

內摩德:他說,你所能做的最好的選擇,可以讓你感覺好一點的非處方藥物就是緩解咳嗽的減充血劑,減輕鼻塞的鼻噴霧劑,緩解喉嚨痛的含片。

埃杰斯:還有熱氣騰騰的液體,喝點一直很受歡迎的雞湯也能讓你感覺更好。但基本上,你就是在盡你所能地把感冒暴露出來,直到它結束這個周期。

內摩德:有些感冒會持續幾周,但大多數會在一周內痊愈。帕蒂·內摩德,NPR新聞。

來自:VOA英語網 文章地址: http://www.ablur.com.cn/19/01/NPR09081638dv.html

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